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However, many others disagree, holding the Chechens to have lived in their present-day lands for over 10000 years.Many scholars, such as Johanna Nichols hold that the Durdzuks were descended from extremely ancient migrations from the Fertile Crescent to the Caucasus, perhaps due to population or political pressures back in the Fertile Crescent.There were shops, where artisans worked on and sold pottery, stone-casting, bone-carving, and stone-carving.There is evidence of an advanced stage of metallurgy.Jaimoukha notes in his book: “The kingdom of Urartu, which was made up of several small states, flourished in the 9th and 7th centuries BCE, and extended into the North Caucasus at the peaks of its power...” The Georgian chronicles of Leonti Mroveli state that the Urartians “returned” to their homeland (i.e.Kakheti) in the Trans-Caucasus, which had become by then “Kartlian domain”, after they were defeated.Although all historians agree they were closely related, there is a wide variety of views on the nature of the relationship.
Yerevan is thought to be the site of the similarly named ancient Èribuni (from the Nakh nation-tribe of the Èrs, which lived in the region bun, the root in Chechen that generated the word “shelter” or “lair”).
The Nakh Èr nation also contributed to a number of other roots- for example the Arax valley (Èrashki, from a Hurrian/Nakh hydronym forming suffix).
Near the Èrs lived a tribe known as the Nakhchradzor.
Bronze artifacts (dating back to the 19th century BCE) in modern-day Chechnya largely correspond with those of Hurria at the time, suggesting a cultural affinity.
The Koban culture (the Iron Age) was the most advanced culture in Chechnya before recorded history, and also the most well-known. The most well-studied site was on the outskirts of Serzhen-Yurt, which was a major center from around the eleventh to the seventh centuries BCE.
The history of Chechnya may refer to the history of the Chechens, of their land Chechnya, or of the land of Ichkeria.