Codex diplomaticus et epistolaris regni bohemiae online dating
The peripheral position of Bohemia is documented by the communications network itself which linked Prague with Regensburg, Nuremberg, Magdeburg, Breslau and Vienna, and thence to places that were part of the first class European communications network.13 Significant quantities of precious metal were acquired from the mines of Bohemia-Moravia and Hungary. 26 A non-punishable use of unminted metal by larger payments is, for example, documented in report of the so-called Saar memorials from 1250, according to which a magnate weighed out his son-in-law 14 pounds of gold and 104 pounds of silver. Silver production in Jihlava (Iglau) and Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg) considerably increased in the years 1260-1350. Ian Blanchard, with reference to Jan Kořán, estimates that average output rose to some 5 tonnes a year in ca 1270, before finally reaching a peak of 6.5 tonnes of silver a year in 1298-1306.14 Jiří Majer mentions output of 5 tonnes in the 1260s and 1270s as well. On the other hand, the geographical location of Bohemia determined, to a substantial extent, the overall character of long-distance trade. The main trade routes from the South to the European core bypassed the Bohemian basin. He shows how the concentration of papal collections at the court of Bruno of Schauenburg, Bishop of Olomouc, in the early 1260s stimulated long-distance trade in this Moravian city, as is evident from archaeological finds of Venetian grossi and glass. He deals with the size of collectoria and with financial amounts appointed for collectors. This report seems to relate to questionable data mentioned by Hübsch 1849, p. In that year Pope Urban IV paid in Venice a certain amount of money destined for purchasing goods for the Ottokar´s court.
Yet the question of how the Papal Curia was financed in the pre-Avignon period has not been sufficiently researched. Two petty Italian coins have been found in the space of medieval town in Olomouc. The Apostolic Camera register had been kept since the pontificate of Urban IV (1261-1264), incomes and expenses recorded in the series The papal financial administration is considered to have given an important impulse for the development of a money economy and Italian banking.2 This stimulus was brought to Central Europe via Venice, which was the largest European market of precious and non-ferrous metals for more than two centuries (about 1280-1500). The city profited from the fact that it was situated closer to Central European mines than other Mediterranean ports. 56 deals with sale of imported glass in 13-century Prague. In the years 1221-1225, the number of merchants coming from South German and Austrian towns increased considerably. German suppliers were invested with special rights that enabled them to establish their own store (During the first half of the thirteenth century, trade contacts spread wide, as is evident from the customs regulations issued for Wiener Neustadt in 1244 by Frederick II, Duke of Austria (1230-1246). 35 The lost procuration letter, in the version known from the formulary book of Marinus of Eboli, has been published by Reinke 2012, p.
Venice made important gains from its role as intermediary between German production regions in Central Europe and markets in the Eastern Mediterranean.